Component parts of axial piston pump

Axial Piston Pumps have several uses and therefore it is an important part of the hydraulic system to which it is installed. It is used as:

  • A pump alone
  • Hydraulic motor
  • Compressors usually in air conditions

What are the parts/pistons of axial piston pumps?

There are several parts and surfaces which make up axial piston pump. Some of these parts are as follows:

  • Mating surfaces
  • Protruding pistons
  • Reciprocation pistons

These pistons will be described one by one as follows:

  • Protruding pistons

There are several types of axial piston pumps and therefore all use different configurations depending upon the manufacturers. However in all cases the protruding pistons are against the part of piston known as a cam. The cam is also called as swashplate. The shaft rotation allows the pumping and therefore axial piston pumps work. There is another concept known as swashplate angle. This angle determines the amount of fluid pumped per revolution. There are two types of axial piston pumps i.e. fixed and variable. The main difference is that the cam or swashplate angle can be changed to alter the fluid pumping in variable pumps. However the fixed pumps have no such mechanism and therefore the cam angle cannot be changed.

  • Reciprocation pistons

The exposed end of the pistons is designed in such a way that they are bound to move as per the cam surface. There are two movements which are related to axial pumps i.e. rising and falling. In rising situation the piston moves towards the cam plate. During the falling of the pump the fluid is pushed through the ends of the valve plate.

  • Mating surfaces

These are associated with the cylindrical block. This block has a convex shape and stands along the mating surface. A valve plate which is usually stationary is used to ensure that this mechanism works well. There is a space between the cylinder block and valve plate. As axial piston pump works on a hydraulic mechanism so fluid of pump passes through the space between cylinders block and valve plate. The axial pump has two ports which allow the passing of inlet fluid and the outlet fluids respectively.

Some uses 

Some major uses of axial piston pumps are as follows:

  • It is used in jets and turbine engine’s main shaft
  • The axial pistons are also used to create pressure and therefore many systems where pressure is to created use axial piston pump as a part
  • Many axial piston pumps are also used to power other machines such as loaders and pressure washers.

Some difficulties

There are several issues which are encountered when it comes to axial pump design. The efficiency is one of the issues which are encountered. The lubrication of axial piston pumps is also a problem. The fluid that is used inside the pump is the manufacturer recommended hydraulic fluid. This fluid has different temperature and operational requirements. However this fluid cannot be used to lubricate the pump. The leakage is one of the reasons which are faced in case of wrong lubrication.

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